Now barely 10% of it is left. Dike Kokaral was completed in 2005 and, as of 2006, some recovery of sea level had been recorded. [94], In October 2018, the BBC produced a programme called Fashion's Dirty Secrets, a large part of which shows the extent of the shrinking Aral and its consequences, together with maybe a little glimmer of hope. This programme has had some success with joint summits of the countries involved and finding funding from the World Bank to implement projects; however, it faces many challenges, such as enforcement and slowing progress.[83]. According to the ICWC,[82] the main objectives of the body are: The International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS) was developed on 23 March 1993, by the ICWC to raise funds for the projects under Aral Sea Basin programmes. Russian naval presence on the Aral Sea began in 1847 with the founding of Raimsk, soon renamed Fort Aralsk, near the mouth of the Syr Darya. Between 30 and 75% of the water from the Qaraqum Canal, the largest in Central Asia, went to waste. [34], From 1960 to 1998, the sea's surface area shrank by 60%, and its volume by 80%. Scientific expeditions proved this had been a site for production, testing and later dumping of pathogenic weapons. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha aralensis) has been reintroduced. In: Chwil M., Skoczylas M.M. [86], Ergash Shaismatov, the deputy prime minister of Uzbekistan, announced on 30 August 2006, that the Uzbek government and an international consortium consisting of state-run Uzbekneftegaz, LUKoil Overseas, Petronas, Korea National Oil Corporation, and China National Petroleum Corporation signed a production-sharing agreement to explore and develop oil and gas fields in the Aral Sea, saying, "The Aral Sea is largely unknown, but it holds a lot of promise in terms of finding oil and gas. The idea was to sacrifice the South Aral Sea to save the North Aral Sea. It would drive a canal 200 metres wide and 16 metres deep southwards for some 2500 kilometres, from the confluence of the north-flowing rivers Ob and Irtysh, to replenish the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers near the Aral Sea (see map). [92], In October 2013, Al Jazeera produced a documentary film called People of The Lake, directed by Ensar Altay, describing the current situation. The first consequence of reduced river runoff to the Aral Sea was a decrease of its level by about 0.2 m/year from 1961 to 1970. The engineers decided that the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers would irrigate the desert, where cotton could be grown for future exports – but the implementation of the idea led to an ecological catastrophe. [79], Attempts to mitigate the effects of desertification include planting vegetation in the newly exposed seabed; however, intermittent flooding of the eastern basin is likely to prove problematic for any development. The Aral Sea is located in Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, in Central Asia. The sea's depth increased from 30 meters (98 ft) in 2003 to 42 meters (138 ft) in 2008. "[33] On the other hand, starting in the 1960s, a large-scale project was proposed to redirect part of the flow of the rivers of the Ob basin to Central Asia over a gigantic canal system. Areas of interest include:[73], Direction three looks to address socio-economic issues by focusing on education and public health, improving unemployment rates, improving water systems, increasing sustainable development and improving living conditions. It includes returning water to the port of Aralsk and nearby villages, rehabilitating delta lakes and further improving river flows. Accessible in: Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature, "DRAINAGE BASIN OF THE ARAL SEA AND OTHER TRANSBOUNDARY SURFACE WATERS IN CENTRAL ASIA", "The Kazakh Miracle: Recovery of the North Aral Sea", South Aral Sea shrinking but North Aral Sea expanding, "Aral Sea | Definition of Aral Sea in English by Lexico Dictionaries", "Satellite image, August 16, 2009 (click on "2009" and later links)", "Satellite images show Aral Sea basin 'completely dried, "Aral Sea 'one of the planet's worst environmental disasters, "The zoocenosis of the Aral Sea: six decades of fast-paced change", "Molecular phylogeny of one extinct and two critically endangered Central Asian sturgeon species (genus Pseudoscaphirhynchus ) based on their mitochondrial genomes", "The Red List of Kazakhstan ::: Aral trout (Salmo trutta aralensis)", "Soviet cotton threatens a region's sea - and its children", "Cotton production linked to images of the dried up Aral Sea basin", "The True Costs of Cotton: Cotton Production and Water Insecurity", "ca-water.net, a knowledge base for projects in the Central Asia", "Grand Soviet Scheme for Sharing Water in Central Asia Is Foundering", "A vanished Sea Reclaims its form in Central Asia", "Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems", "The Aral Sea environmental health crisis", https://wydawnictwo.up.lublin.pl/e-ksiazka, "Once Written Off for Dead, the Aral Sea Is Now Full of Life", "Kazakhstan: Measuring the Northern Aral's Comeback", "Uzbekistan: Moynaq village faces the Aral Sea disaster", "Health and Ecological Consequences of the Aral Sea Crisis", "What have we learned? Other salt-tolerant fish species were intentionally or inadvertently introduced during the 1960s when hydropower and irrigation projects reduced the flow of fresh water thereby increasing salinity. [citation needed]. Contemporary research on the state of the environment and the medicinal use of plants. The ambitious Soviet project – a diversion of the two rivers that fed into the Aral Sea – was only a short-term success. The future of the Aral Sea and the responsibility for its survival are now in the hands of the five countries: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. ‘In 1960, the Aral Sea was the Earth’s fourth-largest lake,’ Cusack says. [30], By 1960, between 20 and 60 km3 (4.8 and 14.4 cu mi) of water each year was going to the land instead of the Aral Sea and the sea began to shrink. [29] Only 28% of interfarm irrigation channels, and 21% of onfarm channels have anti-infiltration linings, which retain on average 15% more water than unlined channels. By 2001, the southern connection had been severed, and the shallower eastern part retreated rapidly over the next several years. "[32], The reaction to the predictions varied. There was considerable concern amongst the Central Asian governments, which realised the importance of the Aral Sea in the ecosystem and the economy of Central Asia, and they were prepared to cooperate, but they found it difficult to implement the procedures of the plan. They surveyed the northern part of the sea in 1848, the same year that a larger warship, the Constantine, was assembled. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains and discharges into the Caspian Sea. Improvements to existing channels of the Syr Darya river, which snakes northwards from Kazakhstan’s Tian Shan Mountains, also helped to boost the flow of water into the North Aral Sea. That change resulted primarily because of the diversion (for purposes of irrigation) of the riverine waters of the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River) in the north and the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) in the south, which discharged into the Aral Sea and were its main sources of inflowing water. [25] Cotton production is still Uzbekistan's main cash crop, accounting for 17% of its exports in 2006. The regions two major rivers, fed by snowmelt and precipitation in faraway mountains, were used to transform the desert into farms for cotton and other crops. The bioweapons base was abandoned in 1992 following the disintegration of the Soviet Union the previous year. In the 1980s commercial harvests were becoming unsustainable, and by 1987 commercial harvest became nonexistent. The amount of water taken for irrigation from the rivers doubled between 1960 and 2000. Even before large-scale irrigation began, high summer evaporation meant that not all of this discharge reache… [5] (By comparison, seawater is typically 35 g/L, and the Dead Sea between 300 and 350 g/L. While two rivers empty into the lake—the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya—the Amu Darya is the largest and most fickle source of water. Possible Answers: AMU; Related Clues: ___ Darya (Asian river) The North Aral Sea (sometimes called the Small Aral Sea) had separated from the South (Large) Aral Sea. Some Soviet experts apparently considered the Aral to be "nature's error", and a Soviet engineer said in 1968, "it is obvious to everyone that the evaporation of the Aral Sea is inevitable. [36] Unlike Kazakhstan, which has partially revived its part of the Aral Sea, Uzbekistan shows no signs in abandoning the Amu Darya river to irrigate their cotton, and is moving toward oil exploration in the drying South Aral seabed. Since the disappearance of the Southeast Aral in 2008, Vozrozhdeniya Island effectively no longer exists as a distinct geographical feature. A review of the literature on children's health and the environment in the Aral Sea area", "Renal tubular dysfunction in children living in the Aral Sea Region", "Acting on an environmental health disaster: the case of the Aral Sea", "The Aral Sea Basin Crisis and Sustainable Water Resource Management in Central Asia", "Resources: Curb vast water use in central Asia. [39], Due to the minimal amount of water left in the Aral sea, concentrations of these pollutants have risen drastically in remaining water and dry beds. Fifty years after its water sources were diverted, the Aral Sea is virtually gone. [40] Furthermore, due to absorption by plants and livestock, toxins (many of which cannot be, without lasting damage, broken down then excreted by the liver/kidney system) have entered the food chain. The main purpose of the ASBP-3 was to improve the environmental and socio-economic situation of the Aral Sea Basin. In 2012 Christoph Pasour and Alfred Diebold produced an 85-minute film with the title "From the glaciers to the Aral Sea", which shows the water management system in the Aral Sea basin and in particular the situation around the Aral Sea. Described as one of the worst environmental disasters of the world, the Aral Sea began shrinking after the waters of the Amu Darya River, which used to flow into the Aral, started to sink into Uzbekistan’s cotton fields, never reaching the sea. The consortium was created in September 2005. The Aral Sea was once the world’s fourth largest lake, home to 24 species of fish and surrounded by fishing communities, lush forests and wetlands. … These populations were most likely to reside downstream from the Basin and in former coastal communities. The extirpated species (aside from possibly the pipefish) returned to the North Aral Sea following its recovery. At 2,428 kilometres (1,509 mi), it is the third-longest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube, and the 18th-longest river in Asia. [89] The film was shot on location in an actual ghost town located near the Aral Sea, showing scenes of abandoned buildings and scattered vessels. Irrigation works on the Syr Darya have been repaired and improved to increase its water flow, and in October 2003, the Kazakh government announced a plan to build Dike Kokaral, a concrete dam separating the two halves of the Aral Sea. [43] The overuse of pesticides on crops to preserve yields has made this worse, such use far beyond health limits. The Aral Sea has no outflow, and is fed by the Amu Darya and Syr Darya (Darya=river). [43] Crops are destroyed where salt is deposited by the wind. [77], "The sea, which had receded almost 100 km (62 mi) south of the port-city of Aralsk, is now a mere 25 km (16 mi) away." The tugai or riparian gallery forests that followed the rivers to the Aral Sea near Samarkand held many species such as Tamarix ramosissima, poplars and sea buckthorn communities, containing unique pheasants, white-headed owl, boar, bald badger and porcupine. The plight of the Aral coast was portrayed in the 1989 film Psy ("Stray Dogs") by Soviet director Dmitri Svetozarov. These issues are compounded by the lack of research of maternal and child health effects caused by the demise of the Aral Sea. It’s this lack of outflow that explains the high salinity. We have 1 answer for the clue ___ Darya (river to the Aral Sea). The scheme was drawn up by the World Bank, government representatives, and various technical experts, without consulting those who would be affected. The canal would carry 27 cubic kilometres of water a year. Since you are already here then chances are that you are looking for the Daily Themed Crossword Solutions. The size of the Aral Sea has long hinged on the Amu Darya, which flows from the high Pamir Mountains in central Asia, across the desert, and into the southern sea. 3. The Kazakh Foreign Ministry stated that "The North Aral Sea's surface increased from 2,550 square kilometers (980 sq mi) in 2003 to 3,300 square kilometers (1,300 sq mi) in 2008. Due to the declining sea levels, salinity levels became too high for the 20 native fish species to survive. Daily Themed Crossword Halloween Minis Level 1 Answers, The ___ a classic horror movie released in 1973 about a girl being possessed by a malevolent demon Answers. ASBP-2 was in place from 2003 to 2010. In 2002, through a project organized by the United States and with Uzbekistan's assistance, 10 anthrax burial sites were decontaminated. See the results below. In June 2007, BBC World broadcast a documentary called Back From the Brink? The former was a warship; the latter a merchant vessel to establish fisheries. Bakhtyar Khudojnazarov's 2012 movie Waiting for the Sea deals with the impacts on people's life in a fishing town at the shore of the Aral Sea. In 1994, they adopted the Aral Sea Basin Programme. For example, only 26 English-language peer-reviewed articles and four reports on children's health were produced between 1994 and 2008. Unlike the North Aral Sea, the South Aral Sea is shared between the two countries so that any improvement in its status would require the cooperation of both. Clue: ___ Darya (river to the Aral Sea) We have 1 answer for the clue ___ Darya (river to the Aral Sea).See the results below. [24] This temporarily succeeded, and in 1988, Uzbekistan was the world's largest exporter of cotton. The only fish that could survive the high-salinity levels was flounder. Our staff has managed to solve all the game packs and we are daily updating the site with each days answers and solutions. 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